This is a question that was recently known on the website. In this regard, Zhang Xiaolin's answer is: It is not an effort to clear up Huabei University. In the short term, there are factors affecting luck, and in the long run, there is a family environment.
  She explained: "A person's family environment will have a very big impact on him/her. Deciding that you come to Tsinghua University is not only your own efforts, but also your family environment, including your parents' educational philosophy, willingness and The time, money, your vision and vision that you can pay for education, the opportunities for some resources you can reach."
  Zhang Xiaolin’s answer to the question under the question was widely forwarded. In the discussion surrounding "Efforts to Clear the North", "the important influence of the family environment on personal development" once again caused netizens to pay attention to the phenomenon of "the cold door is difficult to get out of the house". Some people call this the superiority of "Guizi", and some people call it the helplessness of "cold-style efforts." Many netizens asked: Can the "poor children" squeeze into the prestigious schools by personal efforts?
  You can come to Tsinghua, not only because you work hard
  Zhang Xiaolin is a freshman at the Academy of Social Sciences of Tsinghua University. Her point of view is from a survey conducted by her teacher, Dr. Jin Jun.
  In the "Introduction to Sociology" class taught by Jin Jun, a questionnaire survey is conducted every year for new students. The questions include "Your parents' career", "Where have you been to the farthest place before going to college?" Like the movie," and so on.
  Through the statistics of the questionnaire survey results, Jin Jun found that compared with the national socio-economic status of the family, Tsinghua students have a higher proportion of households with higher socioeconomic status, and households with low socioeconomic status are relatively low. Pyramid type."
  Interestingly, statistics on the “pre-entry activity radius” of students found that among the 14 students of the Tsinghua University Academy of Social Sciences, 43.9% of the students who had been abroad before entering the school, and those who had not been in the province were ○. In contrast, the data for a 211 university in the west is only 2.3% of students who have gone abroad, and 22.7% of those who have not.
  The statistical results of this data are “very stable”: at the Tsinghua University School of Social Sciences and the School of Economics and Management, the proportion of students in the 13th and 14th grades is about 40%. The past survey results are similar.
  “Inquiring about the radius of pre-school activities is actually investigating the family's economic situation. It is not a good way to investigate students' family income directly.” Zhang Xiaolin believes that there is a great correlation between going abroad and the family's economic situation.
  Therefore, the results of this survey are: Compared with the whole country, Tsinghua University has more middle-class and upper-class students, and this phenomenon has continued for many years.
  However, there is also a questioning voice about this result: Can a survey of less than 200 people explain the problem? In fact, as early as 2010, Jin Jun guided his students to conduct a sample survey of the source of Tsinghua University students: the total number of rural students in Tsinghua University in 2010 was 17%. The proportion of rural candidates in the national college entrance examination was 62%.
  Jin Jun also portrayed a typical image of a Tsinghua undergraduate student through years of random classroom surveys: from the city, parents are civil servants and teachers, traveling with parents at least once a year, and even high school has the experience of studying abroad.
  In the words of Jin Jun telling students, "Your family background determines how much resources you can access, determines your learning environment, determines your elementary, junior high, and high school, and also determines your vision and insight. You can come to Tsinghua not only because you work hard, but also because you have these things."
  Even if it is on the "Qingbei", there is still a difference in effort.
  Zhang Xiaolin's post was widely forwarded and discussed online. To her surprise, some media understand that "there is money at home to be able to clear up China's North University", and even "only the rich second generation can go to Tsinghua?" "title.
  Zhang Xiaolin believes that this is a misunderstanding of her point of view. The influence of the family environment is not just about material conditions. This was recognized by many students in the interview of China Youth Daily reporter. As Zhang Xiaolin wrote, in the process of studying, personal efforts and family environment are two complementary factors. The more social capital, cultural capital, and economic capital of parents, the less effort you need to make, and vice versa.
  Although there is an extreme situation in it - because there are too few resources, even if you work hard, there is no chance to clear up China North University. However, it is undeniable that many students who are born in the “Hot Gate” can enter the prestigious schools with their own efforts.
  In addition, for poor areas where education development is lagging behind, the state also requires colleges and universities to open up special channels for the students of the cold door. For example, Tsinghua University expanded the implementation scope of the “Self-Strength Program” last year, and recruited students from 832 state-level poverty alleviation and development key counties and secondary contiguous special hardship counties.
  To a certain extent, these measures have enabled more students to make a "prestigious school dream." But another fact is that, as Zhang Xiaolin said, even among the students who went to Tsinghua University, everyone’s efforts to go to Tsinghua are different.
  Last year, Li Li was admitted to Tsinghua University after the second year of re-reading. From the small county town in the west to the high school in the provincial capital, and then to the university in Beijing, the "rural baby" is actually "Guangzong Yaozu" in the eyes of the family.
  Recalling that in high school for four years, Li Li had little experience of going out for entertainment and participating in club activities. In addition to going home during the summer and winter vacations, I stayed at the school almost all the time to write books and do exercises. In contrast, Wang Da, a high school student who was also admitted to Tsinghua University, was “easy too much”.
  Wang Da’s father is a private enterprise owner and his mother is a high school English teacher. For Wang Da, there is no such thing as Li Li "crashing to the extreme English" and there is no distress to control the cost of living. Not only that, Wang Da served as the main person in charge of the student union in high school, went out to participate in various discipline competitions, robot competitions, summer vacation to Beijing to learn English, winter vacation to go abroad for a holiday... Finally, due to the outstanding performance of the discipline competition has become a guarantee student.
  In Li Li’s view, the conditions given by the “family” made Wang Da’s “Tsinghua Dream” save a lot of effort. "I also entered Tsinghua, but in fact, I think he is much better than me in all aspects, and he is learning to be relaxed and happy." Li Li said.
  Like Li Li, Fu Lin is a "small student". According to the questionnaire survey of Jin Jun, he was born in a rural family in the Central Plains. His parents are peasants who are “honest and honest”. The farthest place before going to college is the prefecture-level city 50 kilometers away from home. He has not seen it before going to university. Movies, there is very little time to watch TV.
  Through his own efforts, he entered a county high school after he attended elementary school and junior high school in the township. He scored an excellent grade and entered a 985 university in the absence of the college entrance examination. He eventually entered Peking University at the postgraduate level.
  Recalling the experience of studying all the way, he found that his primary and junior high school students are from rural areas, the proportion of cold doors is over 98%; among high school students, the proportion of cold doors accounts for about 50%; the difference in family conditions is particularly obvious during the undergraduate period. There are tens of thousands of living expenses per month, and the poor can only rely on the tens of dollars of scholarships to maintain." In the 985 colleges he attended, the students who actually came out of the cold accounted for only about 5%.
  After entering Peking University's postgraduate study, he found that many of his classmates had never participated in the senior high school entrance examination , college entrance examination, and postgraduate entrance examination. "All the way, the provincial champions abound." "There may be sons of wealthy giants around the enemy, and may also have sons of officials who hold power, and may be sons of stars seen on television, and of course children of farmers, children of laid-off workers," but he speculates The ratio is less than 1%.
  From 98% to 50%, and then to 5% and 1%, Fu Lin realized the difficulty of “cold-type efforts” in these changes: as the school level increases, the proportion of “Hanmen Guizi” becomes smaller and smaller. And the last 1% will be cut in the big school of society. "If life is a long-distance running, the students of the cold door are too far behind at the starting line. After starting, the motivation is insufficient, the supply is insufficient, the physical quality is poor, and the teeth can be bitten. There are only a handful of people who insist on it."
  "Now it seems that we are all on the same platform. But if you look ahead, you will find that we are going very hard, and there are still many 'poor children' who have worked hard and have been 'tired' before the end. Li Li said.
  What can a famous school bring to the "cold children"?
  When I was a graduate student at Peking University, there were more than 20 people in a class, but the real "family student" only had one.
  In the interaction with the classmates, Fu Lin felt that the biggest gap was his own experience - not going to a few cities, not traveling, not singing KTV, not going to the gym, or knowing that red wine can be divided into many types... "When others chat, I can only listen and can't participate."
  In this regard, Fu Lin, who is "positive in mind", has tried to read more books, communicate with friends, and participate in their activities. However, he found that some experiences require financial support. For example, in his consciousness, the most expensive camera is a few thousand dollars, but in an outing, he saw a friend who played SLR with several shots. "I heard that every shot is tens of thousands of dollars, I shocked".
  As Fu Lin feels, after entering Tsinghua, Li Li has signed up for a number of clubs to recruit new interviews, but the result is very unsatisfactory: I want to join the art group, but there is no music or instrumental specialty; I want to join the Student Union's Outreach Department, but I was brushed off because I didn't express myself in the interview. I wanted to join the Literary Society, but I found that I haven't read a few books, and even the questions are unfamiliar during the interview...
  The most helpless thing is that in the end, he found that he didn’t have time to participate in club activities. Apart from his study time, his spare time was almost entirely spent on work-study jobs. “Don’t say it’s hard to make up for others.” .
  "They can't do what they like without worry, they need to spend a lot of time part-time, consider the reality." In the view of Zhang Wei, a sophomore at the Tsinghua University School of Social Sciences, students from different family environments are in college. Performance is different.
  She remembers that when she was a freshman, she needed a PPT show. For her from the primary school, she was “not at all hard”, but the students from the rural areas “do not know anything about PPT.”
  Huang Yan, a teacher at Nanjing Jinling Women’s College, wrote that the educational content is a “cultural barrier”. The cultural barrier is a cultural symbol of a class. The current education system does not take care of the knowledge of the students, such as formal Computer courses and English courses in education. Due to economic constraints, many students go to college to access computers, and children in remote mountainous areas do not even have basic network concepts. As for English, even a child with a good family status can make up for it through extracurricular tutoring and foreign teachers, even if the school's English scores are not good. The oral ability is much better than that of the students. Even with textbooks, their cultural backgrounds will not be the same.
  In the Jin Jun teacher's survey of students' favorite movies, the statistical results of the Tsinghua University Social Science 14 students questionnaires are "Shawshank Redemption", "Pirates of the Dream" and "Harry Potter". For Li Li, before the university, he never watched a movie in a movie theater. "To be honest, before the sophomore year, I didn't even read "Shawshank's Redemption". Usually, everyone mentioned these foreign movies, I can only remain silent. ".
  A sociologist has told reporters that after the expansion of the university in 1999, it is an indisputable fact that the proportion of rural students in key universities has decreased. Not only that, the "elite" in a good university comes from the city, because "the children of the city, the children with good parents, have a wide range of knowledge and experience, and have more quality resources than rural children."
  After reading Zheng Yefu’s "The History of the Science and Technology", Zeng Jie, a sophomore at the Tsinghua University School of Social Sciences, had a deeper understanding of the discussion of "Hanmen Guizi".
  He uses Marx Weber's social stratification standards for economics, culture, and prestige to explain that "the economic status, cultural background, and social resources of a student's family determine whether you can go to a prestigious school." But at the same time, he believes that education can promote the flow of social classes.
  "After coming to Tsinghua, as long as you have the heart, you can make up anything." Zeng Jie believes that "university" is a catalyst that can help you to make the "Hanmen students" have the opportunity to change their destiny and get a good society. Status, "but there is no guarantee that you will receive the highest social resources and guarantee the highest social status."
  Zhang Xiaolin remembered a paragraph from Jin Jun’s teacher. Jin Jun said, "After the first year of college, everyone will become more and more like. Those who have not gone abroad can get opportunities slowly. Those who have no clubs and extracurricular activities in super high schools can make up for it, so education It still has a certain impact on personal growth."
  The discussion triggered by the post is still going on. Many comments have been taken care of by Zhang Xiaolin. Apart from deleting some comments that are particularly biased, the only comment left in her heart is: "The future of society is yours, but we will work hard. ”